Objective: Promote energy efficient and universally accessible mobility, and minimise air pollution
As a host city of the 2010 FIFA World Cup™, Cape Town leveraged significant investment in its transport infrastructure, in particular improvements in public transport and Non Motorised Transport (NMT).
A Host City Transport Operations Plan (HCTOP) was developed to ensure that all aspects of the event transport planning and management were addressed. Transport planning activities focused on the avoidance of unnecessary travel and the provision of feasible and safe alternatives to the use of private vehicles, thereby reducing congestion and carbon emissions. Fans were encouraged to use public transport to travel to Cape Town Stadium and the FIFA Fan Fest™. Park-and-ride facilities were available at 22 rail stations, and the City’s new MyCiTi IRT bus system provided a shuttle service from three additional sites. An airport shuttle was also available, making use of new stations at Cape Town International Airport and the main transport hub at Cape Town Civic Centre in Hertzog Boulevard. The new buses purchased as part of the IRT system met the Euro 4 standard for fuel efficiency and CO² emissions.
To maximise the available capacity in the transport system, school and university holidays were scheduled to coincide with the event.
Suitable NMT infrastructure, including new walkways, pedestrian crossings, appropriate surfacing, sufficient lighting, etc., were put in place around the stadia to encourage walking to the venues.
Fuel-efficient driving was promoted through awareness campaigns before and during the 2010 FIFA World Cup™. Posters with tips for fuel-efficient driving were displayed at Council buildings and motor vehicle licensing centres. In partnership with the South African Petroleum Industry Association (SAPIA), an eco-driving training module was developed and piloted with 20 metered-taxi drivers, who received training on how to drive their vehicles in a more environmentally friendly and economical way.
- Development of bicycle and pedestrian facilities
- Development of public transport infrastructure
- CBD bicycle services
- Eco-taxis/fuel-efficiency programme
- Development of bicycle and pedestrian facilities
- Development of public transport infrastructure
- CBD bicycle services
The 2010 FIFA World Cup™ was a catalyst for significant investment in public transport and NMT facilities in Cape Town. Phase 1a of the City’s new IRT system was operational in time for the World Cup and, together with rail, formed the backbone of the public transport system for the event.
Phase 1a of the IRT system included an airport shuttle and match-day shuttle services between the stadium and the main transport hub at Cape Town Civic Centre in the CBD. New IRT main stations were constructed at Cape Town International Airport, Hertzog Boulevard and Cape Town Stadium. Bus-based park-and-ride facilities were provided at the Upper Campus of the University of Cape Town (UCT) in Rondebosch, Camps Bay High School, and Kronendal Primary School in Hout Bay. Investment in infrastructure by the City and the Passenger Rail Association of South Africa (PRASA) enabled legacy improvements to 26 railway stations to promote rail-based park-and-ride during the World Cup event. Additional parking, security and lighting were installed at these stations, and station facilities were upgraded as part of the project.
Cape Town Station was also refurbished in time for the World Cup.
The IRT system and the additional rail services on match days assisted Host City Cape Town to meet the LOC target of 50% of fans travelling to the 2010 stadia by public transport and NMT. The target was met, as a Department of Environmental Affairs survey showed that public transport was used as a main mode of transport by 40% of fans, and 13% walked. In the immediate vicinity of the stadium, fans used the fan walk and stadium shuttle service. The stadium shuttle service was used by 235 000 fans and 581 913 fans walked along the fan walk to the stadium (some without a match ticket, simply to experience the festive atmosphere).
It is estimated that all modes of Cape Town football fan transport covered a total of 36 million passenger-kilometres, allowing the movement of more than 1,3 million people. The FIFA fleet (buses and vans) travelled 354 000 km, which was responsible for about 124 tonnes of CO² emissions. In addition to the investment in bus and rail-based public transport, new pedestrian and bicycle lanes were constructed in the city. Waterkant Street was permanently pedestrianised between Burg Street and Buitengragt, and the sidewalk of Somerset Road was widened to accommodate a bicycle lane and additional footway. This route became the official fan walk between the CBD and Cape Town Stadium during the 2010 FIFA World Cup™. The fan walk is a permanent legacy for Cape Town, and has been well utilised for events at the stadium since the World Cup events.
Two new pedestrian bridges were constructed over Buitengragt – one at the intersection with Waterkant Street (part of the fan walk) and the other at North Wharf Square – to provide a safe pedestrian crossing over this busy route.
A new bicycle route and pedestrian walkway were constructed through the stadium precinct and around Green Point Common. This new route linked up with existing bicycle and pedestrian routes along the Mouille Point and Sea Point promenades, as well as to the CBD through the fan walk.
The establishment of a bicycle rental service to complement the IRT system is currently being scoped. A number of international models are being investigated, including systems used in Paris, Barcelona and Amsterdam. The systems all rely on customers registering to use the service. An operator will be appointed to manage the service.
Mobility for persons with disabilities was a priority for the 2010 FIFA World Cup™. Special measures and operational services were included in the HCTOP to provide transport for this market. The new IRT stations were made wheelchairfriendly, and additional measures were included in the rail station upgrade project to improve services to persons with disabilities. Special match-day shuttles were provided to take mobility-impaired persons as close to the stadium precinct as possible.
Lessons learned on bicycle and pedestrian facilities, the development of public transport infrastructure, and CBD bicycle services
Public transport and NMT improvements are among the legacies of the 2010 FIFA World Cup™ in Cape Town.
It is a major challenge to develop a safe and reliable public transport system for an event of the magnitude of the World Cup – even more so in Cape Town, where the share of public transport as a transport mode has been declining in recent years. It is expected that the new IRT system and investment in the upgrade of rail infrastructure in preparation for the 2010 FIFA World Cup™ will play a major role to reverse this trend.
An efficient public transport system is not only required for the safe transportation of fans, but also to contribute to a significant reduction in the event’s carbon footprint. Transport already accounts for 50% of Cape Town’s energy use. New public transport and NMT infrastructure will assist in reducing this over time – an essential trend for any city looking to be sustainable and to have a smaller carbon footprint in the future. To put it in perspective: Compared to single-occupant private vehicles, fans consumed a tenth of the energy by taking the train, and about a quarter by taking a bus.
During the 2010 FIFA World Cup™, many South Africans for the first time switched their mode of transport from private vehicle to bus or train. Although additional event train services were scheduled, these were inadequate for the large numbers of fans. Safe, efficient and reliable public transport can form the backbone of a major events transport plan, provided that sufficient capacity is available. This positive public transport experience may increase the use of this travel mode in the future.
The original intention had been to facilitate the establishment of a fleet of low-emission, energy-efficient, eco-friendly metered taxis operating in the CBD for 2010 and beyond. These taxis are already available in many cities, including London, Dublin, Auckland and Taipei. Eco-taxis have low fuel consumption and energy-efficient technology, thereby reducing emissions that harm the environment.
After engagement with various stakeholders involved in the authorisation of metered-taxi services in the Western Cape, it became clear that, within current government mandates and the legislative framework, it would be difficult to achieve. The licensing of metered taxis was demand-driven, responding to requests from the private sector, rather than supply-driven, whereby licences are offered to those who qualify.
The focus of this project then shifted to the development of an eco-driving training module for metered-taxi drivers in Cape Town. The Province and the City partnered with SAPIA to develop a training module that could be included in the compulsory professional driver training course offered to metered-taxi drivers. The eco-driving training aimed to promote fuel-efficient driving habits, which would reduce harmful vehicle emissions. As part of a pilot project, 20 drivers received theoretical training, and their eco-driving was monitored during practical sessions. Based on the outcome of the pilot project, the Province requested the Transport Education and Training Authority (TETA) to incorporate and accredit the eco-driving training course content as a core unit standard module of the professionaldriver National Qualifications Framework (NQF) (level 3) training.
An eco-driving campaign took place during Transport Month, October 2009, and again during Environment Week in June 2010 to encourage Province and City staff to apply innovative and proactive measures in driving and vehicle maintenance in order to reduce carbon emissions. In addition, posters with eco-driving tips were displayed in Council and Province buildings as well as vehicle licensing centres.
The Province and City departments responsible for air quality management and transport have since adopted this initiative as part of their ongoing management interventions.
Lessons learned on eco-taxis project
From various engagements with authorities responsible for overseeing taxis, it became clear that this was a very complex industry, with many role players and issues to consider. In addition, the industry had become increasingly regulated, with more clearly defined roles and responsibilities.
The original proposal to offer new permits for environmentally friendly taxis (eco-taxis) could not be accommodated within the current legislative mandate of provincial and local government. The norm had been for government to respond to taxi operator applications from the private sector. Government was not in a position to offer licences based on certain criteria, such as the environmental features of the vehicle. In fact, it was pointed out that there were no emission standards for metered taxis operating in South Africa. The only criteria for the vehicles related to roadworthiness. The permit was issued to the operator/ driver, not to the vehicle. That allowed old vehicles with high potential for carbon emissions to operate alongside new vehicles with better emission profiles. Province raised this issue with the Department of Transport (DOT), and requested a review of the policy and the incorporation of emission standards into the permitting process.
Key references and source material
- City of Cape Town. November 2008. Host City Transport Operations Plan Version 3.
- City of Cape Town. June 2009. Cape Town’s Integrated Rapid Transit System
- Department of Environmental Affairs. 2010. 2010 National Environmental Volunteer Project Survey: Western Cape Provincial Report.
- Sustainable Energy Africa. April 2009. A Green Goal 2010 Workshop: Taking
responsibility for tourism during the 2010 FIFA World Cup™. Cape Town.